Follow Me!
Refuge: The Inhabitants.
Refuge is the home to many species of intelligent and semi-intelligent life forms.  Some are originally from Earth, many have evolved on Refuge into completely different species.  Other eveolved from life on Refuge, and have no roots on Earth.
Hominids:  Genus Homo.  The descendants of Earth Hominids, many branching off from Homo Sapiens, some from before the rising of the Sapien line.

Humans:

Humans live for a much longer life span on Refuge, and the whole are much more healthy.  This may be due to the lesser gravity, or the healthier effects of a less toxic planet, or some unknown effect of magic.  But whatever the reason, the average human lives to at least 130 Refugean Years (143.4336 Earth Years), and stays active for a much greater percentage of this life span.  The stages of Human development are as below:

1-10 Childhood.
11-16 Adolescence.
17-40 Young Adult.
41-60 Adult.
61-90 Middle Aged.
91-110. Mature.
110-130. Old Age.

White Humans:    White Humans, also known as Nordicans, are either native to Refuge (unlikely since they are so gentically similar to Earth Humans) or came over to Refuge at a much earlier date.  They were here when the Elves arrived, so at least predate their crossing.
Nordicans are a tall and muscular race, males averaging 6'5" (1.97 M) in height and about 230 Earth Pounds (104.5 Kg).  They tend to have either blue or green eyes, paper white skins that burn easily under Refuge's Sun, and curly fair hair (Yellow, White, Light Brown, Strawberry or Red), though darker hair is not unheard of.  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but have very little other body hair.  Their faces tend to be narrow, with sharp noses and chins and thin lips.

Yellow Humans:  Yellow Humans, also known as Ahnkarans, are either native to Refuge (unlikely since they are so genetically similar to Earth Humans) or came over to Refuge at a much earlier date.  They were here when the Elves arrived, so at least predate their crossing.
Ahnkarans are a short and wiry thin race, males averaging 5'6" (1.69 M) in height and about 140 Earth Pounds (64 Kg).  They tend to have either blue or black eyes, Deep Yellow-Brown skins that do not burn easily under Refuge's Sun, and straight dark hair (Brown, Black or Deep Red, though lighter hair is not unheard of.  They have trouble growing beards and mustaches, and have very little other body hair.  Their faces tend to be narrow, with sharp noses and chins and thin lips.

Red Humans:  Red Humans, also known as Martogans, are either native to Refuge (unlikely since they are so genetically similar to Earth Humans) or came over to Refuge at a much earlier date.  They were here when the Elves arrived, so at least predate their crossing.
Martogans are a tall and muscular race, males averaging 6'6" (2 M) in height and about 230 Earth Pounds (104.5 Kg).  They tend to have either green or brown eyes, Deep Red skins that do not burn easily under Refuge's Sun, and straight or wavy Dark hair (dark red, brown or black are the most common) though lighter hair is not unheard of.  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but have very little other body hair.  Their faces tend to be narrow, with sharp noses and chins and thin lips.

Jet Black Humans:  Jet Black Humans, also known as Mooricans (or La'Mooricans), are either native to Refuge (unlikely since they are so genetically similar to Earth Humans) or came over to Refuge at a much earlier date.  They were here when the Elves arrived, so at least predate their crossing.
Mooricans are a tall, and thin but wiry race, males averaging 6'4" (1.95 M)  in height and about 170 Earth Pounds (77 Kg).  They tend to have either blue or green eyes, Jet Black skins that do not burn easily under Refuge's Sun, and all the hair colors of Caucasians (as well as the curliness levels).  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but have very little other body hair.  Their faces tend to be narrow, with Hook noses, square chins and thin lips.

Caucasoid Humans:  Caucasian Humans, also known as Whites or Aryans, are Refugees from the Planet Earth who mostly came over during the great crossing.  Caucasians come in various sizes and weights, males averaging 5'10" (1.79 M) in height and about 180 Earth Pounds (82 Kg).  They tend to have the entire range of eye colors and hair colors (which can be anything from perfectly straight to very curly), and skins from freckled fair to deep brown.  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but tend to also have thick body hair.  Their faces can span the range between narrow to round, with standard noses from narrow to broad, thin chins and thin lips.

Negroid Humans:  Negroid Humans, also known as Blacks, are Refugees from the Planet Earth who mostly came over during the great crossing.
Negroids come in various sizes and weights, males averaging 5'11" (1.82 M) in height and about 185 Earth Pounds (84 Kg).  They tend to have mostly brown or hazel eyes, though blue and light green are not unheard of, while their hair tends to be black and kinky, and their skins range from light brown to jet black.  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but tend to also have thick body hair.  Their faces can span the range between narrow to round, with broad noses, square  chins and thick lips.

Oriental Humans:  Oriental Humans, also known as Asians, are Refugees from the Planet Earth who mostly came over during the great crossing.
Asians tend to be one of the shorter races (though their are some tall peoples), males averaging 5'6" (1.69 M) in height and about 150 Earth Pounds (68 Kg).  They tend to have dark brown or dark green eyes, straight black hair, and dark Yellow-brown skins.  They can grow thick beards and mustaches, but tend to have very little body hair.  Their faces can span the range between narrow to round, though round tends to be the norm, with broader noses, narrow chins and thin lips.

Amerind Humans:  Amerind Humans, also known as Indians or Indianos, are Refugees from the Planet Earth who mostly came over during the great crossing.  Amerinds come in various sizes and weights, males averaging 5'9" (1.77 M) in height and about 170 Earth Pounds (77 Kg).  They tend to have dark eyes of either green or brown tint, straight dark brown or black hair, and dark reddish-brown skins that do not burn easily in the Sun.  They can have trouble growing thick beards and mustaches, and also tend to have sparse body hair.  Their faces tend to be rounder than most other races, with hook noses, broad chins and thin lips.

Refugian Humans and Earth Humans have different Blood Types, though there is some overlap.  Both Groups have both RH+ and RH-.
Earth Human:  A, B, AB, O.
Refuge Human:  B, O, P, BP.

Elves:   Elves are an original offshoot of the genus homo, branching off some 625,000 years ago.  It is considered that Green Elves are the original branch of the Elfin Tree, though modern Green Elves are very different from the prototype of Elf from the original branching.  These Elves crossed over about 100,000 years ago (not including their Dark Elf cousins) to Refuge and became a more magical race.  This original line of Elves was long lived (500+ years) if not killed by something, very resistant to disease.  They were clean with low odor and didn't give off much scent to give themselves away.  They had great senses, were very stealthy, but were slow to reproduce.  They had natural ESP, hypnotic powers and the magic of illusion, though it was not able to penetrate rage., and greater emotional control.  These abilities gave them an advantage over the humans they warred with, giving them a 4:1 kill ratio overall, but human passion and reproduction rate gave humans the victory in most long term conflicts.

About 475,000 years ago a tribe of Green Elves moved to the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean Region and began the slow change that led to the Sea Elf branch of the family.   Some of these Elves crossed over to Refuge about 200,000 years ago, mutating in the magical environment to fit their habitat even more and become the most magical of elves.

About 400,000 years ago a tribe of Green Elves moved from the Indian Subcontinent Eastern Homeland of the Elves into the forests of Russia.  These Elves eventually became what is now known as the Gray Elves, the seperation and mutation rate causing them to eventually become a subspecies of elf.  Gray Elves crossed about the same time as the Green Elves.

About 300,000 years ago a family group of Gray Elves moved into the region of the Ghobi Desert and eventually became the Sand Elf branch of the family.  About 200,000 years ago some of these elves crossed the gateway into Refuge, where the magical environment mutated them even more to fit their newfound Desert Environment.

About 225,000 years ago several tribal groups of Green Elves, running from the humans of the region of Earth they inhabited, went through the dimensional gateways to Refuge.  There they were welcomed by the Gods of Death who used their hatred of Humans to sin them to the cause.  Mutations caused by the Gods turned them into the Jet Black,  Red Eyed Dark Elves, though they stayed in many respects close to the Green Elf Tree.  The Elf Wars between these elves and the following Green and Gray Elves 100,000 years ago drove the Dark Elves underground, where they changed more, becoming the physically strongest of the Elves.  They also became on the whole disallusioned with the Gods of Death, switching allegiance to the Gods of Chaos.

About 40,000 years ago many tribes of Gray Elves, wishing the strength of greater affiliation and a more refined culture, branched off from the Gray Elves to become the Sylvan Elves, comparable in technology and culture to the neighboring Green Elves.  Only minor physical differences evolve over this short period of time.

About 30,000 years ago many tribes of Green Elves, turning their backs on the old ways, begin to develop more of an attitude of civilization, eventually becoming the dominating race of Elves, the High Elves.

High Elves (Ellala):    High Elves are the longest lived of the Elvin races, and they consider themselves the most culturally advanced.  But while culturally advanced and possessed esthetically excellent tastes in art, music and literature, High elves are not the most imaginative of races when it come to science, engineering and magic.  This is not to say they are not magically adept, as all High Elves have a strong magic aura (the strongest of any natural race) and an instinctual grasp of magic, though their link to potential magical energy is not the strongest (see hypothalamus).  But humans have progressed further in the magical arts, developing more spells and more higher level magic users in their shorter time on Refuge than the High Elves.  In fact, it is rare for a High Elf to rise higher than Master Mage level 2, and the number who have ever made Archmage can be counted on a single hand.  But, then again, most High Elves rise to at least the level of Craftsman Spells, and the majority gain the ability to cast Technician spells or beyond.
High Elves tend to live in family units of Husband, Wife and immature child.  Spouses are usually united for life, though there is normally a certain amount of sexual swapping during every High Elvin marriage.  The child is normally born after a gestation period of fifteen months, and for some reason is even more helpless than a human infant.  They have little control of any bodily functions and must be looked after closely for the first two years of life.  Fortunately High Elves are the best of parents, totally devoted to their child.  Twins are almost never delivered, and High Elves normally do not start another child (since females have control over their ovulation) until the current one is raised.  High Elvin children mature slowly, boys slightly faster than girls.  They begin to walk by age two, talk by three, and are running like deer by age five, though their young childhood lasts for at least ten years, and they are much the same proportion to their parents as a human child is at age six.
High Elves enter an extended puberty at age twenty, leaving puberty and entering adulthood by age thirty-five, though the traditional right of passage for young elves is at age thirty.  They are extremely emotional during puberty, learning slowly the iron control they will retain on their emotions through the rest of their lives.  They move from their family house shortly after the end of puberty, living in bachelor and maiden groups (though they do not tend to retain their virginity long after entering puberty, being sexually promiscuous until they settle down and marry).  Marriage traditional occurs when a High Elf reaches the age of one hundred, when they have developed their abilities to the fullest.
High Elven females remain fecund until the age of three thousand years (males remain fertile until senility), producing an average of one child every fifty years of life.  Aging is not apparent in High Elves through most of their adult lives, a High Elf looking very much like a human would at age twenty all the way through their thousandth birthday, and never appearing more than thirty during their entire adult life.  Old age occurs between the ages of three thousand eight hundred years and four thousand two hundred years.  High Elves age rapidly at this point, become old, frail, and senile within a year or two, their emotions no longer in reign. They act much like High Elven adolescents at this point.  Death occurs within ten years of inception of old age.  High Elves are very sensitive about this point of their development, and the aged are normally kept out of sight, though they are treated very well.  Death, when it occurs, is rapid and painless.
High Elves believe that after they die their souls, if they lived a good life, go to the Ellysium Fields, where they commune with their ancestors, dead contemporaries and the Gods for a period of several thousand years, after which their souls are reborn to High Elves for another cycle.  Those who have completed enough cycles of rebirth with exceptional lives remain in the Ellysium Fields for an eternity of bliss.  Those who have lived less than good lives will burn and suffer in the Helgorath (the underworld, to repent their sins before rebirth centuries later.
High Elves tend to live above ground in towns and cities constructed of hardened wood, beautifully decorated and polished.

High Elves, like all Elves with the exception of Sand Elves, have a much higher metabolism than other sentient races.  Their body temperatures hover around 105 degrees Fahrenheit.  They also move much quicker than other races and can run for extended periods of time (only surpassed in this by Sylvan, Green and Gray Elves).  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at 1 1/2 times the rate a human of the same body weight would.
High Elves are light sleepers, only going through one shallow dream cycle per night, and only sleeping for four or less hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  Their ears are constantly allert, and the Elves can go from a state of total suspension to total wakefulness in an instant.
High Elves normally eat 1 1/2 times the nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If running long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to double.  High Elves, because of their very low body fat ratio and wiry builds, also starve within half the time of a healthy human, about 2 weeks versus a month.  They will enter a catatonic state after about a week of not eating to conserve their energy supplies.

Because of their small stomachs and light digestive tracts, High Elves either eat a dozen small meals during a normal day, or, in the case of many High Elf Cultures, eat one moderate sized Family Meal late at night, and snack their way through the rest of the day.  Prepared foods high in nutritional value, especially hearts of grains and highly nutritive vegetables, are the preferred foods, as well as highly seasoned meats in moderation.

Sylvan Elves (Conyastaya):   Sylvan Elves are the shortest lived of the temperate Elvin races, and they consider themselves the best hunters and trackers.  Sylvan Elves are not as learned as the other two major elvin races, though reading and writing are still honored traditions, and Sylvan Elves are excellent woodworkers and Nature Mages. But Sylvan Elves are not the most imaginative of races when it come to science, engineering and magic.  This is not to say they are not magically adept, as all Sylvan Elves have a strong magic aura and an instinctual grasp of magic.  But humans have progressed further in the magical arts, developing more spells and more higher level magic users in their shorter time on Refuge than the Sylvan Elves.  In fact, it is rare for a Sylvan Elf to rise higher than Master Mage level 2, and no Sylvan Elf has ever risen to the rank of  Archmage.  But, then again, most Sylvan Elves rise to at least the level of Craftsman Spells, and the majority gain the ability to cast Technician spells or beyond.
Sylvan Elves tend to live in family units of Husband, Wife and immature child.  Spouses are usually united for life, though there is normally a certain amount of sexual swapping during every Sylvan Elvin marriage.  The child is normally born after a gestation period of twelve months, and for some reason is even more helpless than a human infant.  They have little control of any bodily functions and must be looked after closely for the first two years of life.  Fortunately Sylvan Elves are the best of parents, totally devoted to their child.  Twins are almost never delivered, and Sylvan Elves normally do not start another child (since females have control over their ovulation) until the current one is raised.  High Elvin children mature slowly, boys slightly faster than girls.  They begin to walk by age two, talk by three, and are running like deer by age five, though their young childhood lasts for at least ten years, and they are much the same proportion to their parents as a human child is at age six.
Sylvan Elves enter an extended puberty at age eighteen, leaving puberty and entering adulthood by age thirty-one, though the traditional right of passage for young elves is at age thirty.  They are extremely emotional during puberty, though the angry emotions are slowly controlled, and Sylvan Elves as adults become the most cheerful and generous of intelligent creatures on Refuge.  They move from their family house shortly after the end of puberty, living in bachelor and maiden groups (though they do not tend to retain their virginity long after entering puberty, being sexually promiscuous until they settle down and marry), which wander and hunt through the virgin woods surrounding Sylvan Elf communities.  Marriage traditionally occurs when a Sylvan Elf reaches the age of eighty, when they have developed their abilities to the fullest.
Sylvan Elven females remain fecund until the age of two thousand years (males remain fertile until senility), producing an average of one child every forty years of life.  Aging is not apparent in Sylvan Elves through most of their adult lives, a Sylvan Elf looking very much like a human would at age twenty all the way through their thousandth birthday, and never appearing more than thirty during their entire adult life.  Old age occurs between the ages of two thousand years and three thousand years.  Sylvan Elves begin a slow aging at this point, becoming old, frail, and senile after an honorable old age of a couple of hundred years.  This makes the Elders of the Sylvan Elves more respected and powerful than the elderly of the other Elfin races.  These Elders are the leaders of the tribe/village..  Death, when it occurs, is rapid and painless.
Sylvan Elves believe that after they die their souls, if they lived a good life, go to the Forests of Lotharian, where they commune with their ancestors, dead contemporaries and the Gods for a period of several thousand years, after which their souls are reborn to Sylvan Elves for another cycle.  Those who have completed enough cycles of rebirth with exceptional lives remain in the Forests of Lotharian for an eternity of bliss.  Those who have lived less than good lives will burn and suffer in the Helgorath (the underworld, to repent their sins before rebirth centuries later.
Sylvan Elves tend to live in Forests in towns and villages grown from living trees that are beautiful to behold.

Green Elves (Ellasa):    Green Elves, essentially the wild form of High Elves, have the same life spans and physical features of their High Elfin cousins.    They are more magically inclined and have a higher instinctual grasp of magic than High Elves, though their technical expertise is less than the High Elves..
Green Elves tend to live in family units of Husband, Wife and immature child.  Spouses are usually united for life, though there is normally a certain amount of sexual swapping during every Green Elvin marriage.  The child is normally born after a gestation period of fifteen months, and for some reason is even more helpless than a human infant.  They have little control of any bodily functions and must be looked after closely for the first two years of life.  Fortunately Green Elves are the best of parents, totally devoted to their child.  Twins are almost never delivered, and Green Elves normally do not start another child (since females have control over their ovulation) until the current one is raised.  Green Elvin children mature slowly, boys slightly faster than girls.  They begin to walk by age two, talk by three, and are running like deer by age five, though their young childhood lasts for at least ten years, and they are much the same proportion to their parents as a human child is at age six.
Green Elves enter an extended puberty at age twenty, leaving puberty and entering adulthood by age thirty-five, though the traditional right of passage for young elves is at age thirty.  They are extremely emotional during puberty, learning slowly the iron control they will retain on their emotions through the rest of their lives.  They move from their family house shortly after the end of puberty, living in bachelor and maiden groups (though they do not tend to retain their virginity long after entering puberty, being sexually promiscuous until they settle down and marry).  Marriage traditional occurs when a Green Elf reaches the age of one hundred, when they have developed their abilities to the fullest.
Green elven females remain fecund until the age of three thousand years (males remain fertile until senility), producing an average of one child every fifty years of life.  Aging is not apparent in Green Elves through most of their adult lives, a Green Elf looking very much like a human would at age twenty all the way through their thousandth birthday, and never appearing more than thirty during their entire adult life.  Old age occurs between the ages of three thousand eight hundred years and four thousand two hundred years.  Green Elves age rapidly at this point, become old, frail, and senile within a year or two, their emotions no longer in reign. They act much like Green Elven adolescents at this point.  Death occurs within three years of inception of old age.  Green Elves are very sensitive about this point of their development, and the aged are normally kept out of sight, though they are treated very well.  Death, when it occurs, is rapid and painless.
Green Elves believe that after they die their souls, if they lived a good life, go to the Ellysium Fields, where they commune with their ancestors, dead contemporaries and the Gods for a period of several thousand years, after which their souls are reborn to Green Elves for another cycle.  Those who have completed enough cycles of rebirth with exceptional lives remain in the Ellysium Fields for an eternity of bliss.  Those who have lived less than good lives will burn and suffer in the Helgorath (the underworld, to repent their sins before rebirth centuries later.
Green Elves tend to live above ground in small villages constructed of well made wooden houses in heavily forested areas.

Dark Elves (Dekifin):    Dark Elves are the third longest lived of the Elvin Races (after High and Green Elves).  The physically strongest of the Elvin races (on average as strong as humans), they are also the most imaginative and emotional of the Elves, approaching humans and gnomes in the facility of imagination.  Dark Elves are also at least as magically adept as High Elves when it comes to instinctual use, though their auras are on the whole slightly weaker, and have also developed an array of different magical spells.  Dark Elves have been known to rise as high as Master Level 3, though none have been known to achieve the rank of Archmage.
Dark Elves live in extended households of Husband, Wife, Grandparents, Uncles and Aunts, and all of the families children.  Twins are rare but not unheard of.  Marriages are for life, and Dark Elves rarely have sex with anyone but their oath mates after adolescence.  Children are born after fourteen months gestation, much more helpless than a human baby at birth.  They have little control of any bodily functions and must be looked after closely for the first two years of life.  Fortunately Dark Elves are the best of parents, totally devoted to their children and those of the extended family. Like High Elves, Dark Elf females control their ovulation, but Dark Elves enjoy having more than one child at times, so over half the Dark Elf children are raised with a brother or sister.  They begin to walk by age two, talk by three, and are running like deer by age five, though their young childhood lasts for at least ten years, and they are much the same proportion to their parents as a human child is at age six.
Dark Elves enter an extended puberty at age twenty, achieving adult development by around age thirty-two, at which time they are usually allowed to undergo their right of passage (though this can be delayed for up to ten years upon approval of the community elders) .  Dark Elves learn through puberty to control their softer emotions, though they are quick to anger all of their lives, flying into an intense rage whenever they think they have been misused.  It is said that a Dark Elf will hate for life those who deserve their hate, and the way of Hapturing (Vendetta) is the way of the Dark Elf. They are also known for their cruel streak towards all that isn't Dark Elvin, though they are kind to all who are like them, and Dark Elves in the Empire have learned to be tolerant toward the ways of others.  Dark Elves stay in the extended family's house until they reach the age of marriage at around one hundred years.  They are very promiscuous before this time, trying to find the most sexually compatible mate before settling down.  After Marriage the Dark Elf couple will either move into the house of the Matriach, if there is room, or they will strike off on their own to establish a new household.
Dark elven females remain fecund until the age of two thousand, five hundred years (males remain fertile until senility), producing an average of one child every fifty years of life.  Aging is not apparent in Dark Elves through most of their adult lives, a Dark Elf looking very much like a human would at age twenty all the way through their eight hundredth birthday, and never appearing more than thirty during their entire adult life.  Old age occurs between the ages of three thousand four hundred years and three thousand eight hundred years.  Dark Elves age rapidly at this point, become old, frail, and senile within a year or two, though their wisdom is great and they are listened to by all in the community. Dark Elves are very open about this point of their development, and the aged are honored and respected members of their society.  Death occurs within twenty years of inception of old age.   When it occurs, it is rapid and painless.
Dark Elves believe that after they die their souls, if they lived a good life, go to the Halls of Darkness, where they commune with their ancestors, dead contemporaries and the Gods for a period of several thousand years, after which their souls are reborn to Dark Elves for another cycle.  Those who have completed enough cycles of rebirth with exceptional lives remain in the Halls of Darkness for an eternity of bliss.  Those who have lived less than good lives will burn and suffer in the Halls of Fire, to repent their sins before rebirth centuries later.  Exceptionally Evil Dark Elves are said to be trapped forever in these eternal flames, a lesson to those who pass through this hell not to repeat their sins in another life.
Dark Elves prefer to live in large, stone work houses situated in cities within large cavern systems, though in a pinch they will live in carven chambers, and some Dark Elves in the Empire have taken to living in houses above ground situated in shady groves.
Dark Elves acquired their name more for the supposed Dark Side of their souls, a tendency to embrace Death and Evil more so than other Elves, and not for the color of their skin as many suppose.  This does not mean they are doomed to become Evil, or even that they are not as capable of good as any other race of Elves.  Only, they must struggle more to remain on the path of light.
Dark Elves have the lowest metabolism of any Elves with the exception of Sand and Ice Elves.  Their body temperatures hover around 100 degrees fahrenheit.  They also move much quicker than other races, even other elves, though their endurance is less than any other elfin race.  Their metabolism causes them to use energy from food at 1 1/8 times the rate a human of the same body weight would.
Dark Elves are light sleepers, only going through one shallow dream cycle per night, and only sleeping for five or less hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  Their ears are constantly alert, and the Elves can go from a state of total suspension to total wakefulness in an instant.
Dark Elves normally eat 1 1/8 times the nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If running long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 1 and 3/4.  Dark Elves, because of their very low body fat ratio and wiry builds, also starve within three quarters of the time of a healthy human, about 3 weeks versus a month.  They will enter a catatonic state after about two weeks of not eating to conserve their energy supplies.
Because of their larger stomachs and heavier digestive tracts, Dark Elves tend to eat three to five regular meals a day, supplemented by occasional snacks as the mood strikes them..  Prepared foods high in nutritional value, especially meats and highly nutritive breads and sweets, are the preferred foods.

Other Elf Races include Sand Elves, Ice Elves, Sea Elves and Grey Elves, which will be discussed at a later time.
Dwarves:   Dwarves and Gnomes are both branches of the same trogladite ancestor that had branched from the human line 500,000 years ago.  400,000 years ago the original dwarven line began to branch off and the original line is assumed to have become extinct.  Mountain Dwarves seem to be the closest line to these original dwarves.  They crossed over in mass two times, first 225,000 years ago (see Dark Dwarves) and 100,000 years ago.  The group that crossed last are the ancestors of today's Mountain Dwarves.
About 325,000 years ago, population pressures in the Underground caused some families of Dwarves to be ejected from the caves.  These Dwarves grew slightly larger and thinner in the open forests of primordial Europe.  These Dwarves crossed over at about the same time as their Mountain Dwarf cousins.
About 225,000 years ago a group of Mountain Dwarves crossed over into Refuge.  They were welcomed by the Gods of Death and became willing servants of these powerful gods.  Divine mutations caused the Jet Black coloration of their skin.  The Dark Dwarves were driven father into the earth during the Elf Wars.  They became on the whole disallusioned with the Gods of Death and became either Law or Chaos worshippers.

There are some almost standard differences between Dwarves and other homonid races, staring with the brain. 
The Frontal Lobes are lesser developed in dwarves than in humans (25% less neurons), give less affinity for magic as well as less emorional control.
Hypothalamus the same as humans, giving the same access to magical power.
The Right Temporal Lobe is better developed in Dwarves, giving them a greater instinctual understanding of mathematics and engineering.
Adrenal Glands are 80% larger than in humans, giving Dwarves a greater burst of energy.
Eyes:  Slightly smaller orbit than humans.  20% less rods mean lesser normal night vision, but IR rods give IR night vision.  30% less cones give less discrimination.  Dwarves have some overlap with the other races.  Dwarves can be both RH+ or RH-.
O, P, C, CP.

Mountain Dwarves (Dimikran):   Mountain Dwarves are among the strongest and most hardy creatures on Refuge, with a strength to weight ratio 1.5x that of a human, and twice the endurance, both in slow muscle push and marching time (the same holds true with Dark Dwarves).  They are also as agile as a human, a source of amazement to those unfamiliar with the race.  Mountain Dwarves average a height of four feet, four inches, with a range of three feet, eleven inches to five feet in males, slightly shorter in females.  All Mountain Dwarves are extremely hirsute, with thick pubic, underarm and chest hair (females are slightly less hirsute, though they do tend to have a fringe of hair around their nipples.  All Males sport full beards and mustaches, a source of pride among these dwarves.  Many, especially the warrior class, braid both their long hair and their beards.  Females have a slight fringe beard and mustache, and many of the more civilized shave regularly in order to emulate the females of other races.

Mountain Dwarves are a long lived race, averaging 450 years of life on this plane.  They are born after a ten month gestation, and are very mobile for a young sentient.  They enter a short adolescence at the age of ten and are physically adult at the age of sixteen.  They reach middle age at around the age of two hundred and sixty, and old age is reached by four hundred ten or so.  Mountain dwarves retain much of their strength during this time, and are the very respected elders of the race. 

1-15 Childhood.
16-28 Adolescence.
29-160 Young Adult.
161-260 Adult.
261-360 Middle Age.
361-410 Mature.
411-450 Old Age.

Mountain Dwarves live in family units of Husband, Wife and Children.  Twins and even triplets are common, and Dwarves tend to have their children in clutches of three to five over a ten year period, then stop having children for the rest of their lives.  Mountain Dwarf females remain fertile till the age of three hundred, so more children are always a possibility in case the community is in need.  Females go into heat once a year (but not while pregnant, and males only become arouse at the scent of their own female.  Mountain Dwarves only have sex for procreation, with the least sensitivity to physical pleasure of any of the races, and females do not achieve orgasm.  Of course, this means that Mountain Dwarves are completely resistant to those creatures which use seduction or sex to gain control of others. They do have a well developed sense of greed and avarice though, and are especially vulnerable to creatures who use treasures or the illusion of treasures to control them.  Mountain Dwarves are unusually powerful in the ways of psionics, and many become high level telepaths and psionicists.
Mountain Dwarves maintain a weak magical aura, and most magic is not a major part of their lives,  The exception to this is in the area of forge and earth magic.  Their are very few Mountain Dwarven Mages, and the rank of Master is rarely achieved, though the Dwarves make very good and devote clerics.  Conversely they are very resistant to the effects of detrimental magic, and learn and use minor protective instinctually.  They are also very resistant to physical injuries of heat and poison, though cold effects them badly.
Mountain Dwarves feel deep emotions, especially love and hate, and though they may seem humorless to other races, they have a very developed sense of humor among themselves and are dedicated practical jokers, though they resent the intrusions of outsiders into their jokes.  They especially feel close to their families and children, and the bond of love is something special among the races.
Mountain Dwarves love to live underground in chambers and cities carved from the living rock of the earth, though some will also live above ground, as long as the stone dwelling is situated in mountains.  They eat and drink to excess, though they keep very little in the way of body fat, and they love to hold feasts and drinking contests.  Alcoholism is a problem though, with about 10% of the race succeptible to this problem, but dwarves cannot be poisoned by alcohol.  Mountain Dwarves also love to smoke the herbal drugs, amd are very resistant to addiction by any drug but alcohol.

Mountain Dwarves, like all Dwarves, have a much lower metabolism than other sentient races.  Their body temperatures hover around 90 degrees fahrenheit.  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at  3/4  the rate a human of the same body weight would.  Their strength and endurance are legendary, though, the dwarves able to go without sleep on a march for several days if necessary, and able to fight a pitched battle at the end of the march.
Mountain Dwarves are heavy sleepers, going through several deep dream cycles per night, and sleeping for eight to ten hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  They snore deeply, and are very hard to awaken.
Mountain Dwarves normally eat 3/4 times the nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If marching long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 1 1/2 times.  Mountain Dwarves, because of moderately high body fat ratio and muscular builds, take over twice the amount of time to starve as a healthy human, about 2 1/2 months versus a month. 
Because of their large stomachs and heavy digestive tracts, Mountain Dwarves eat one or two large meals during a day.  Meat and potatoes are the preferred fair, along with breads and prodigious amounts of beer and ale.

Forest Dwarves (Gimikran):   Forest Dwarves are slightly less hardy than their underground dwelling cousins, with a strength to weight ratio 1.25x that of a human, and 1.6x the endurance, both in slow muscle push and marching time.  They are also as agile as a human, a source of amazement to those unfamiliar with the race, and are slightly more agile than the Mountain and Dark Dwarves.  Forest Dwarves average a height of four feet, six inches, with a range of four feet, one inch to five feet in males, slightly shorter in females.  All Forest Dwarves are extremely hirsute, with thick pubic, underarm and chest hair (females are slightly less hirsute, though they do tend to have a fringe of hair around their nipples.  All Males sport full beards and mustaches, a source of pride among these dwarves.  Many, especially the warrior class, braid both their long hair and their beards.  Females have a slight fringe beard and mustache, and many of the more civilized shave regularly in order to emulate the females of other races.
Forest Dwarves are a long lived race, averaging 400 years of life on this plane.  They are born after a ten month gestation, and are very mobile for a young sentient.  They enter a short adolescence at the age of ten and are physically adult at the age of sixteen.  They reach middle age at around the age of two hundred and seventy, and old age is reached by three hundred and seventy or so.  Forest dwarves retain much of their strength during this time, and are the very respected elders of the race. 
Forest Dwarves live in family units of Husband, Wife and Children.  Twins and even triplets are common, and Dwarves tend to have their children in clutches of three to five over a ten year period, then stop having children for the rest of their lives.  Forest Dwarf females remain fertile till the age of two hundred and eighty, so more children are always a possibility in case the community is in need.  Females go into heat once a year (but not while pregnant, and males only become arouse at the scent of their own female.  Forest Dwarves only have sex for procreation, with the least sensitivity to physical pleasure of any of the races except their underground cousins, and orgasm in females is rare.  Of course, this means that Mountain Dwarves are completely resistant to those creatures which use seduction or sex to gain control of others. They do have a well developed sense of greed and averice though, though slightly less than their Mountain Dwarf cousins, and are especially vulnerable to creatures who use treasures or the illusion of treasures to control them. 
Forest Dwarves maintain a weak magical aura, and most magic is not a major part of their lives,  The exception to this is in the area of forge and nature magic.  Their are very few Forest Dwarven Mages, and the rank of Master is rarely achieved, though the Dwarves make very good and devote clerics.  Conversely they are very resistant to the effects of detrimental magic, and learn and use minor protective instinctually.  They are also very resistant to physical injuries of poison, and are more resistant to both cold and heat then humans.
Forest Dwarves feel deep emotions, especially love and humor, and are known throughout the lands for their tendency to joke with any and all. .  They especially feel close to their families and children, and the bond of love is something special among the races.
Forest Dwarves love to live in hilly forests, in small, thatched roof houses, though they also seem to adapt well to cities and life among humans.  They eat and drink to excess, having a tendency to store body fat.  Alcoholism is a problem though, with about 10% of the race susceptible to this problem, but dwarves cannot be poisoned by alcohol.  Forest Dwarves also love to smoke the herbal drugs, and are very resistant to addiction by any drug but alcohol.

Dark Dwarves (Kidimikran):   Dark Dwarves are among the strongest and most hardy creatures on Refuge, close cousins of the Mountain Dwarves with almost all the same attributes, strengths and weaknesses, with a strength to weight ratio 1.5x that of a human, and twice the endurance, both in slow muscle push and marching time (the same holds true with Mountain Dwarves).  They are also as agile as a human, a source of amazement to those unfamiliar with the race.  Dark Dwarves average a height of four feet, four inches, with a range of three feet, eleven inches to five feet in males, slightly shorter in females.  Dark Dwarves are less hirsute than their cousins,though they do possess a goodly amount of pubic, underarm and chest hair (females are much less hirsute).  Only Masters of a craft (including Master Warriors) or elders sport full beards and mustaches, a source of pride among these dwarves.  The Warriors in particular braid both their long hair and their beards.  Those not worthy of the beard shave on a daily basis.  Females have hairless faces.

Dark Dwarves are a long lived race, averaging 450 years of life on this plane.  They are born after a ten month gestation, and are very mobile for a young sentient.  They enter a short adolescence at the age of ten and are physically adult at the age of sixteen.  They reach middle age at around the age of two hundred and ninety, and old age is reached by four hundred or so.  Dark Dwarves retain much of their strength during this time, and are the very respected elders of the race. 

Dark Dwarves live in family units of Husband, Wife and Children.  Twins and even triplets are common, and Dwarves tend to have their children in clutches of three to five over a ten year period, then stop having children for the rest of their lives.  Dark Dwarf females remain fertile till the age of three hundred, so more children are always a possibility in case the community is in need.  Females go into heat once a year (but not while pregnant, and males only become arouse at the scent of their own female.  Dark Dwarves only have sex for procreation, with the least sensitivity to physical pleasure of any of the races, and females do not achieve orgasm.  Of course, this means that Dark Dwarves are completely resistant to those creatures which use seduction or sex to gain control of others. They aren't as greedy as their Mountain Dwarf cousins, and so are not as vulnerble to creatures who use treasures or the illusion of treasures to control them, about the same as humans.  Dark Dwarves possess an above average ability in the ways of psionics, and many become telepaths and psionicists.
Dark Dwarves maintain as strong a magical aura as humans, and magic is a greater part of their lives than other dwarves.  They are very strong in earth magic.  Their are a moderate number of Dark Dwarven Mages, and the rank of Master is sometimes achieved.  The Dwarves make very good and devote clerics.  Conversely they are resistant to the effects of detrimental magic, though not as much as Mountain Dwarves, and learn and use minor protective instinctually.  They are also very resistant to physical injuries of heat and poison, though they are easily effected by the effects of cold.
Dark Dwarves feel deep emotions, especially love and hate, and though they may seem humorless to other races, they have a very developed sense of humor among themselves and are dedicated practical jokers, though they resent the intrusions of outsiders into their jokes.  They especially feel close to their families and children, and the bond of love is something special among the races.
Dark Dwarves love to live underground in chambers and cities carved from the living rock of the earth, though some will also live above ground, as long as the stone dwelling is situated in mountains.  They eat and drink to excess, though they keep very little in the way of body fat, and they love to hold feasts and drinking contests.  Alcoholism is a problem though, with about 10% of the race susceptible to this problem, but dwarves cannot be poisoned by alcohol.  Dark Dwarves also love to smoke the herbal drugs, amd are very resistant to addiction by any drug but alcohol.

Orcs  (Grogatha):  There are two subspecies of Orc, Red and Yellow, which are essentially the same except for skin color.  Orcs are a form of Homonid related to Humans with long canines and a thick, slightly scaly skin.  They are mammals and produce live young, feeding them with mother's milk.  Orcs live to about 75 Refugean Years (in civilized settings) or 82.75 Earth Years.  The stages of life are as below.

1-9 Childhood.
10-14 Adolescence.
14-30 Young Adult.
31-45 Adult.
46-56 Middle Age.
57-65 Mature.
66-75 Old Age.

Orcs have a very similar metabolism to humans.  Their body temperatures hover around 97 degrees fahrenheit.  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at  the same rate a human of the same body weight would.  Their strength and endurance are great though.
Orcs are heavy sleepers, going through several deep dream cycles per night, and sleeping for eight to ten hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  They snore deeply, and are very hard to awaken.
Orcs normally eat the same nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If marching long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 1 1/2 times.  Orcs, because of moderate body fat ratio and muscular builds, take a little longer to starve than a healthy human, about 1 1/2 months versus a month.  Because of their large stomachs and heavy digestive tracts, Orcs eat one to three large meals during a day.  Meat and potatoes are the preferred fair, along with breads and prodigious amounts of beer and ale, though they can handle even carrion if neccessary.
Orcs Overlap somewhat with humans, dwarves and elves.  All Orcs are RH-.
O, C.
Halflings (Kashana'liya): Halflings are also known as the little people, a not unplaced name as they are very much like little humans in many respects.  Halflings live to be about 140 Refugean Years (154.467 Earth Years).  The stages of development are as below.

1-9 Childhood.
10-15 Adolescence.
16-45 Young Adult.
46-70. Adult.
71-100 Middle Age.
101-120 Mature.
121-140 Old Age.

Halflings branched off from Refugian Humans much before the color change. 
Although very humanlike in appearance, Halflings have a much higher metabolism than humans.  Their body temperatures hover around 101 degrees fahrenheit.  They also possess much quicker reflexes than any race other than Elves.  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at 1 1/2 times the rate a human of the same body weight would. 
Halflings are heavy sleepers, going through several deep dream cycles per night, and sleeping for eight to ten hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  They snore deeply, and are very hard to awaken.
Halflings normally eat 1 1/2 times the nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If marching long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 2 times.  Halflings, because of high body fat ratio and rotund builds, take
about the same amount of time to starve than as a healthy human, about a month, despite their higher metabolism. 
Because of their large stomachs, heavy digestive tracts, and high metabolisms, Halflings eat two to four large meals during a day.  Meat and potatoes are the preferred fare, along with breads and prodigious amounts of beer and ale, though any food that a human would eat is also eaten by Halflings.
Halflings share the Blood types of both types of humans, and can have either RH+ or RH-.
A, B, P, O, AB, AP, BP.

Giants:  More on Giant Humans later.  Below is what little I have.
Ice Giants:  Up to ten feet tall (3 M+) with a thick white fur growing on their bodies from head to foot.
Sea Giants:  Up to eleven feet tall (3.4 M) with sand colored hair and sea blue eyes set in a Tahitian Brown Skin.
Forest Giants:  Up to ten feet tall with the same coloration as caucasian humans.
Mountain Giants:  Up to twelve feet tall (3.7 M) and much thicker than other giants, with pale skin and blond hair/grey eyes.

Gnomes:  Dwarves and Gnomes are both branches of the same troglodite ancestor that had branched from the human line 500,000 years ago.  400,000 years ago the original Gnomish line began to branch off and the original line is assumed to have become extinct.  A mutation caused the line to become smaller and thinner than the Dwarves as the line moved out of the underground and into the forests.
About 250,000 years ago a branch of the Gnomes moved back to the underground, mutating slightly and becoming even smaller than their forest dwelling cousins.  Both branches crossed over to Refuge 100,000 years ago when the death knell fro non humans became apparent on Earth.

Deep Gnomes  (Slanayana):   Deep Gnomes have a very similar metabolism to humans.  Their body temperatures hover around 99 degrees fahrenheit.  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at  the same rate a human of the same body weight would.  Their strength and endurance are great though.  Deep Gnomes are heavy sleepers, going through several deep dream cycles per night, and sleeping for Nine to Eleven hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  They snore deeply, and are very hard to awaken.
Deep Gnomes normally eat the same nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If marching long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 1 1/2 times.  Deep Gnomes, because of moderate body fat ratio and slender builds, take a little less time to starve than a healthy human, about 3/4 month versus a month.
Because of their large stomachs and heavy digestive tracts, Deep Gnomes eat one to three large meals during a day.  Meat and potatoes and underground grown fungus are the preferred fare, along with breads and good wine, though they can handle anything a human would eat.

Forest Gnomes  (Klanayana):   Forest Gnomes have a very similar metabolism to humans.  Their body temperatures hover around 98 degrees fahrenheit.  This metabolism causes them to use energy from food at  the same rate a human of the same body weight would.  Their strength and endurance are great though.  Forest Gnomes are moderate sleepers, going through several dream cycles per night, and sleeping for seven to nine hours in any twenty-four hour period (unless recuperating from physical damage or exhaustion).  They snore lightly, and are awakened easily.
Forest Gnomes normally eat the same nutritional value in food that a human does to stay active.  If marching long distances or undergoing other exertions, this rate can go up to 1 1/2 times.  Forest Gnomes, because of moderate body fat ratio and slender builds, take a little less time to starve than a healthy human, about 3/4 month versus a month. 
Because of their large stomachs and heavy digestive tracts, Deep Gnomes eat one to three large meals during a day.  They prefer the same diet as humans and Halflings if given their will, loving meat, potatoes and fresh vegetables,along with good beer and wine.
Human Immortals:  Immortals are classified as those of pure immortal stock (either the pure genetic mutation of Human Immortal or the child of two pure Immortals).  Some classify those of Human Immortal and Elfin mix as Immortals, as their life spans are essentially eternal anyway, even if their immortal strengths are not quite as powerful as pure human immortals, though their elfin memories make up for some of these defects.
The first immortals to come over to Refuge were all very powerful upon materialization on the planet, much stronger and faster than a normal human regardless of age, though the ancient immortal Ishmael Levine and the century old Kurt von Mannerheim were much more powerful than their younger peers.  Refuge born Immortals seem to follow a slightly different set of rules, for unknown reasons.
Normally the Immortal is born after a ten month gestation period, attributed as a late birth by most (since this also does happen in normal births).
At birth an Immortal is not distinguishable from any other child, even a little slower than most to open its eyes and move about.  It develops all the ordinary childhood ailments, though it seems to shrug them off faster and with less bad effect than most children.  They grow a little slower than most children.  By age six they are about as developed as a normal four to five year old, smaller than their peers, uncoordinated much more than a normal human.  But they also tend to heal faster than their peers, and shrug off colds and flues in half the time as a same aged peer.  By age ten they are still a couple of years behind their peers in growth, and are classed as slow to mature.  But they are now very strong for their age, and seem to possess great athletic ability and coordination, as well as a natural gift for the books, many being classified as gifted.
At age thirty an Immortal will have reached full physical growth, appearing as a mortal in his or her young twenties, though his or her powers will be small compared to what will come.  At this time the Immortal has 2 times the strength of a normal strong human, 1.6 times the speed and reflexes, 15 times the healing ability, and the psionic powers of a moderate Psionic, as well as greater than human intelligence.
At the age of fifty an Immortal has 3 times the strength of a normal strong human, 2 times the speed and reflexes, 25 times the healing ability, and the psionic powers of a superior Psionic, as well as genius intelligence.
At the age of one hundred an Immortal has 6 times the strength of a normal strong human, 2.5 times the speed and reflexes, 50 times the healing ability, and the psionic powers of a Highly Superior Psionic, as well as High Genius Intelligence.
At the age of two hundred an Immortal has 8 times the strength of a normal strong human, 2.7 times the speed and reflexes, 108 times the healing ability, and the psionic powers of a Supreme Psionic, as well as Superior Genius Intelligence.
At the age of four hundred an Immortal has 12 times the strength of a normal strong human, 2.9 times the speed and reflexes, 360 times the healing ability, and the Psionic powers of a Super Psionic, as well as Ultimate Genius Intelligence.
At the age of one thousand an Immortal has 16 times the strength of a normal strong human, 3.1 times the speed and reflexes, 580 times the healing ability, and the same Psionic Powers and Intelligence.
Immortals continue to grow stronger, faster and gain increased healing ability as they grow older, though there is a law of diminishing returns, such that a 3 millennial Immortal would have 17 times human strength, 3 times speed and reflexes, and 920 times the healing ability of a normal human.
Immortals will remain in appearance like a man or woman in their mid thirties, an appearance they attain by about the true age of one hundred.  They do retain scars, though they are smaller than normal when fully healed, but regrow all major lost flesh, bone, organs, etc.

The memory of an Immortal is one of the stranger things about the breed, vacillating as it does between the most Eidetic of memories and the most fleeting.
The Immortal has a memory much like any other human between the ages of one and twenty, though better than most.  Between the ages of twenty and fifty the memory abilities of the Immortal ever increases, until by the age of fifty the immortal gains the full Eidetic Memory they will retain for the rest of their existence.  They retain all memories, visual, olfactory and audial, retaining them in redundant systems much as a regular human for their first two hundred years or so.  After this they store memories in single areas which makes it easier to lose memories from any kind of damage.  Retrieval is still better than a normal human, but sometimes more information must be sifted in order to come up with the wanted memory.  After about four hundred years their storage systems begin to fill and single memories are often overwritten by new ones.
Visual memories are the easiest to lose, followed by olfactory and audial.  Factual information is somewhat retained, especially that which is considered very important, and motor memories are difficult to lose, though there is some damage to them as well.  The tragedy is that although the Immortal will probably retain everything from the earliest years of life, they will lose bits and pieces wholesale about events that happened after this period, losing memories of past loves and friends.
The supercharger system of the immortal is one of the most damaging to memory.  When an Immortal goes into supercharged mode for any length of time over a minute, such as will occur in combat situations, body temperature rises above 120 degrees and sometimes up as high as 150 degrees.  While most of the body systems of the Immortal can handle this increase, the nervous system cannot, and wholesale destruction of neurons, especially in the central nervous system.  Memories of all types suffer, but those without redundancy systems are lost.  When the nervous system regenerates those redundant old memories that have been stored in multiple locations are duplicated again, but the single newer memories are lost forever.  Of course some of these memories can be learned again from outside source, but not to the level of life that they had before.
Of course other forms of head damage will also cause memory loss, sometimes even total amnesia.  Blows to the head will temporarily destroy areas of the brain, along with any nonredundant memories stored there.

Immortals enter superficial puberty at about the age of fifteen, three years behind their peers.  Women achieve full physical development by the age of twenty-five, and though sexually mature, don't begin estrous and ovulation until they are at least one hundred years old.  After this period they ovulate irregularly about every fifty years or so, though not all of these ovulations will lead to children.  Immortal women can be impregnated by both Normal Humans, Elves and Immortal Humans, though most will only allow themselves to be mated to an Immortal Human.

Lifespan?  No one really knows, though most don't believe they are truly Immortal.  The best estimate of the seers, based on the aura and binding energy readings of several Immortals, is a life span of between 100,000 and 150,000 Years.  Of course, the oldest known Immortal, Ishmael Levine, is about 2,100 years old, and is still growing stronger, and no one is really sure what they will eventually grow into, whether mere superhuman or God.
Immortals because of their constitutions are immune to all sickness and disease, whether natural or divine, as well as able to resist all attempts at poisoning.  Their blood clotting system is so superior that they are almost immune to bleeding to death, clotted blood sealing even the most grievous wound almost instantly.  Extreme cold and heat will damage them temporarily, but will not bring death.  Damage is healed at an incredible rate, and their nervous system is capable of full regeneration, though nervous system damage, especially blows to the head, can relieve them of memory (though their brain pans are better protected than in any other mortal creature, both with superior armored bone and superior tissue padding.
Immortal Bones are made of a Carbon Calcium Matrix many times stronger than normal bone.  At birth their skeletal systems are almost entirely Calcium as is a normal human, but Carbon Fibers begin to be intruded into the calcium material as growth progresses.  By one hundred years of age ninety percent of the bone material is carbon fibers, giving the bone structure the strength of high carbon steel.  By five hundred years of age almost 99 percent of the skeletal structure is formed by Carbon Fibers, giving a tensel strength to the bone of over twice that of high carbon steel.  In fact, Immortals have been known to block the blow of a razor sharp blade wielded by a strong troll with their forearm, the blade penetrating the flesh to rebound from the underlying bone.
Immortal Skin, though rich with pain and pleasure sensors and flexible in order to allow the Immortal to function normally, is also tougher than ordinary flesh.  Again, a Carbon Fiber is integrated into the skin matrix, making the skin as tough as stone, getting tougher as the Immortal Ages, as tough as the skins of Trolls.  The skin system is also able to regenerate quickly, respinning the fibers to close the wound as cells regenerate to fill in the biological matrix.
Immortal Muscle is anchored by Carbon Fiber Tendons and Ligaments, allowing for the greater application of force through the bones and the muscle system, also allowing for joint/tendon systems that are very difficult to blow out.  The muscles themselves are made of very efficient fibers of incredible strength.  The supercharger system of Glands  in the Immortal can increase the strength of these muscles to an even greater degree.  The blood/circulation systems are also more efficient than in any other living creature, able to bind reserves of oxygen and sugars to the improved red blood cells for use when demands are greatest.  This also allows the Immortal to hold his or her breath for up to thirty minutes while still conscious, allowing for deep dives and the ability to swim long distances under water.
Immortal Nervous Systems, both central and peripheral, are made of a multitude of smaller than human fibers packed into a tighter matrix/system.  Conduction is improved by both faster myelin jump conduction and smaller synaptic gaps.  The system improves with age.  The system is also capable of restarting after almost any conceivable shock, and is also capable of conducting electrons through the body much like an electrical eel.
Mental powers of Immortals are also extremely well developed, growing stronger with age.  Telepathy, both long and short range, broadcast and personal, telekinesis, both strong and finely detailed, and even pyrokinesis in rare cases, are among the powers an Immortal might yield. Immortals also possess ultimately strong mind shields, able to protect them from any purely mental psionic attack (as opposed to telekinesis or pyrokinesis).  The Immortal can even resist the effects of multiple attacks from many Supreme Psionicists, as well as massed Neowolf Assault. 
The Immortal is also Immune to the detrimental effects of magic, though this ability is somewhat weakened if the Immortal dabbles in magic himself.  This includes all effects of mortal mages and supernatural creatures.  The willpower of the Immortal protects him or her from all hypnotic effects or attempts at psionic control.
Given all this, the Immortal can still be killed.  Fire can consume the Immortal, while total lack of oxygen can deprive his cells of life, making drowning or entrapment underground a very real threat.  Continued heavy wounding while the body is attempting to heal can lead to the body becoming unable to recuperate.  While magic cannot directly effect the immortal, the effects of magic on material objects can, such as a fire started by a fireball.  Cold can freeze the Immortal, making him helpless, and intense freezing, such as in liquid air, can freeze him enough to shatter and not be recoverable.  His or her skin can still be cut, and the permanent decapitation of an immortal effectively leads to that Immortal's death, for though the body can grow a new head is the body is cared for, it will not really be the same person, as the brain will be a tabula rosa.  Extreme shock, such as multiple heavy blows or a fall from an extreme distance/high speed impact, can kill enough of the Immortal's cells to prevent regeneration.  if over sixty percent of the Immortals biological structure is destroyed (cellular damage) then the Immortal will soon die completely and unrecoverably.
Immortals lack a strong magical aura, and must find other sources of power to energize their spells.  Ishmael Levine has found his source in the Gods of Life and a connectedness to the Universe, while Heinrich Stuppleheim has obtained his from the Gods of Death.
Immortals are subject to overheating due to the supercharger system (see memory).  They posses a normal heat loss system of sweat glands and blood flow to the surface of the skin, so unheating takes awhile.  Muscles and nerves of the peripheral system will many times spasm while the body is cooling down to a workable level.  The supercharger system can also seriously deplete the Immortal's body of sugars and carbohydrates as well as severely dehydrate their systems.  This can cause severe weakness and even unconsciousness until the body can bring up new reserves, or even until outside sources are brought in.  A great deal of sleep is also needed after a prolonged supercharger session, both to remove wastes from the muscles and to allow healing/renewal of nervous systems.
In fact, most Immortals require greater amounts of food and water than any other sentient, though because of their size and the greater capacity of their digestive systems they do not require quite as frequent infusions as Elves, being able to consume mass quantities at a sitting.  They also require about ten hours sleep a night, and sometimes more when they have exerted themselves.  They can stay awake for days at a time like any other sentient, but will break down into hallucinations and dementia in about half the time of a normal human, and will lapse into a coma if they go without sleep at all for five days or so.
Immortal sleep cycles are also somewhat different from most other sentients.  They spend very little time in REM sleep but have very vivid dreams during this period.  They spend about two thirds their sleep cycle in Delta and are very hard to awaken at that time. 
Immortals have a heightened sensorium, both in vision, hearing, taste and olfactory.  Their range and discrimination of hearing is very similar to that of the High Elves, though they have greater sensitivity.  Their eyesight is actually superior to that of the Elves, both in distance and clarity, though they do not have much more spectral range than a normal human, but are still better at gathering light at night, giving them a starlight vision that is almost as good as the infravision of Elves.  Their olfactory senses are superior to that of normal humans, with greater sensitivity, though no more range and discrimination than a normal human.  Taste is more discriminating, though not quite as well developed as that of the Elves.  Touch is also heightened, again not quite as well as the Elves.
Killing Immortal Humans

Contrary to the name given to these beings, they are not incapable of being killed.  In fact, several means exist for killing an Immortal.

1.  Asphyxiation:  Immortals can be killed by means of Asphyxiation, either by drowning, suffocating or other means.  The Cells of an Immortal are much more resistant to death from lack of oxidation than the cells of normal humans, able to shut themselves into a stasis for days at a time.  The addition of their own stores of Hyperhemoglobin in both cell and blood stream increases this advantage even more.  It would normally take about two days for the cells of an Immortal Human to begin dying.  At the end of three days all of the cells would have died and the Immortal would be dead.  Brain Cells of course die much quicker, with cells starting to necrotize within two hours of Oxygen stavation, and total Brain Death occurring within four hours.  Regeneration can occur, even with brain cells, but any memories stored in dead cells are of course lost forever.
2.  Burning:  Burning of enough of an Immortal's body  to cause death to a sufficient number of cells (1/2 or more) will push the Immortal to the point beyond which his body can regenerate.  Of course, completely destroying the body is the one sure way of causing death.
3.  Decapitation:  Decapitation will kill the Immortal's Brain if the head is not reunited with the body within a limited time period.  Of course the body can survive, and a new head and brain will eventually be regenerated, but all memories, even the very personality of the Immortal will be lost, so essentually that person is dead.
4.  Massive damage to the body:  Shock resulting in the death of over half the cells of the body may result in death to the Immortal, as the body will not be able to regenerate that amount of damage.  Shock can result from the terrible impact of a long fall or impact from a large caliber artillery round.  Constant and continually wound, such as being hacked repeatedly in a battle, can also cause death as the body is stressed passed the point of being able to repair and regenerate damage.
5.  Intense Freezing:  Freezing Cold that causes bodily fluids to crystalize (which occurs at a much lower temperature in Immortals than in other creatures) and damages the majority of cells can cause death.
6.  Pulping or Severing the Heart.  The Pulping of the Heart of the slicing of the heart into pieces that do not retain contact with each other can result in the death of an Immortal.  If the heart is not capable of healing fairly quickly, the Immortal's body will not be supplied with the blood and nutrients it needs for regeneration to occur.  This is not a sure kill, just a possible.
7.  Starvation or Death of Thirst:  One of the great weaknesses of this superior metabolism.  Immortals can make efficient use of stored fluids and food, but their hypermetabolism can cause them to starve to death or die of thirst much quicker than their Mortal Peers.  They can go into stasis to arrest death, lasting for months on a subsistence level, but will still eventually die.  Their ability to survive on foods and liquids that would kill any other creature, such as poisonous fruit, urine or salt water, does give them a bit of an advantage.

Means by Which an Immortal Cannot Be Killed.
1.  Poisoning:  No poison known can breach the defenses of an Immortal's antibodies.  The most that can be expected of any poison is a period of unconsciousness during which time the Immortal's Body is digesting the poison.
2.  Disease:  As above.  No Known Disease can breach an Immortal's Immune System.
3.  Puncture Wounds through vital organs:  Might as well punch holes in water, as fast as these wounds heal.  Also, Immortal's blood is a clotting monster, able to almost instantaneously seal wounds, then dissolve away as need.  The lodging of objects within the Immortal's body also does not work, as their immune/blood system is capable of dissolving any object rapidly.
4.  Normal Extreme Heat:  Extreme Heat that would kill any other being, but less than that needed to cause destruction of tissues, will not kill and Immortal.  Their bodies will go into shutdown to preserve life.
5.  Normal Extreme Cold:  As above.  If it does not crystalize the tissues, it will not kill the Immortal.
6.  Magical Curses, Possessions or other Means:  Immortals are immune to the detrimental effects of magic.
7.  Electrocution:  Immortals can store and use Electrical Energy much like an Electric Catfish.  Only if the power level is great enough to cause tissue destruction as in burning is electricity a threat.
8.  Mental or Hypnotic Control:  Forget it.  Immortals are the most powerful of psionics, with impenetrable mind shields and indomitable wills.  They cannot be mentally controlled, or willed to harm themselves or to die.
9.  Soul Sucking and other demonic monsters:  Immortals have too much binding energy, with their almost unlimited life span, for a Soul Sucker to be able to kill them.  Any Soul Sucker, no matter how powerful, would be destroyed by the influx of binding energy well before the Immortal was at risk of destruction.
10.  Severed Nervous System:  Regeneration is especially quick among an Immortal's Nervous System.  Nerve Regeneration is normally completed in less than a day (longer for some sensory organs such as the eyes, which can take three to four days), and all systems can be self regulated while waiting for connections to reoccur.
Fairy:  While having the appearance of Hominids, Fairy are in no way related to their larger look alikes.

Faerie: The Smallest of the Sentient Races on Refuge, and also the only truly Immortal Race outside of the Human Immortals, Faerie also tend to only inhabit the wildest forests of the planet.  Faerie only grow to about six inched in height, with golden or red hair, blue or green eyes, and gossamer wings with a one foot wing span.  Faerie ally with both Brownies and Sylvan/Grey Elves.  They are very magically inclined, and especially expert with Enchantment, Sleep and Illusion Magic, though they can also excel in combat magics.

Brownies:   A diminutive race of manlike creatures of very small size (at most 1 foot), the Brownie only lives in small communities in the wildest parts of the planet.  Creatures of Life, they make their living by hunting and gathering.  With dark brown hair and eyes set in light brown skin, the sentients tend to also wear brown clothing, hence the name.  Magical by nature, brownies live for a very long time, up to two thousand years, and are masters of Woodcraft, Tracking and Illusionary Magic.

Pixie:   The largest of the races of Fairy, Pixies stand up to a foot and a half tall, with greenish hair, green eyes, and a pale white skin.  The sworn enemies of Gremlins, they fight a constant war with the vile creatures, the Pixie's greater intelligence and better weapons giving them the edge in the conflict.  Pixies are creatures of life, living by farming in the deep glens of the wild forests.  Magical creatures, they are experts in Illusion, Life and Enchantment Magic all.

Sprites:   Sort of like flying Brownies, though with a much darker skin, and bat like wings of over a two foot span.  One foot tall and also occupiers of the wild places of the world, especially the high mountain valleys.

 
Goblins:  Goblins are a separate line from that of the other land dwelling hominids on Refuge, not able to reproduce with men or women of any type (though they can still engage in sex with them, and do many times in acts of rapine and murder).  Closely related to the Dinosauroids, from which their branch separated about seventeen million years ago, they are a line that totally evolved on Refuge.  They are divided into five different species.

Goblins:  Goblins are the intermediate sized members of the Genus, standing about 5 feet tall (1.54 M) and weighing perhaps 130 earth pounds (59 Kg).  Goblins live to be about 50 Refugean Years Old (though really not many of them make it this far).  The stages of development are as below.
1-7 Childhood.
8-12 Adolescence.
13-22 Young Adult.
23-35 Adult.
36-41 Middle Age.
42-46 Mature.
47-50 Old Age.

Hobgoblins:   Hobgoblins are the Large sized members of the Genus, standing about 6.4 feet tall (1.95 M)and weighing perhaps 230 earth pounds (104 Kg).  Hobgoblins live to be about 60 Refugean Years Old (though really not many of them make it this far).  The stages of development are as below.
1-8 Childhood.
9-14 Adolescence.
15-28 Young Adult.
29-40 Adult.
41-50 Middle Age.
51-57 Mature.
58-60 Old Age.

Kobolds:   Kobolds are the small sized members of the Genus, standing about 3.5 feet (1.08 M) tall and weighing perhaps 65 earth pounds (29.5 Kg).  Kobolds live to be about 40 Refugean Years Old (though really not many of them make it this far).  The stages of development are as below.
1-5 Childhood.
6-9 Adolescence.
10-17 Young Adult.
18-28 Adult.
29-34 Middle Age.
35-38 Mature.
39-40 Old Age.

Draegers:  Also known as the Evil Dwarves, though not related to Dwarves at all, these stout, three and a half foot tall Goblins are the most human looking of the breed.  Living entirely beneath the Earth, not even able to stand the strong sunlight which quickly burns their pale, slimy skin, they are known for their ruthless raids on underground communities and night raids on surface dwellings.

Gremlins:   The smallest of the Goblins, and the only branch able to fly, these are also the nastiest of the Goblins in many ways.  Rarely reaching more than two feet in height, and looking much like a miniature goblin with dragon's wings, fine scales and dragon style ear flaps, the Gremlins entire purpose in life is to cause harm and destruction to the works of other races.  Though small in size, the Gremlin is known to band together into packs for the purpose of murder and large scale destruction.
Dinosauroids: The sentient descendants of Dinosaurs, though not closely related to each other.

Lizardmen:  Also known as the Lingurians.  A very dense and ugly race of Dinosauroids.  Heavy Scaled Skin of Differing shades of green.  Some magical ability, though not near as much as the Snakemen.  Live mostly in primitive tribal structures, and prefer the dense Jungles and Swamps which other humaniods stay away from.

Snakemen:   Also known as the Latharash (High Elfin).  An ancient race of warm blooded creatures of the order of Dinosaurian.  Body temperature about 91 degrees.  Very magically inclined, especially in Destructive and Death Magic.  Very fine Scaled Skin of hues of brown and yellow.  Speak in a hissing, sibilant language.  Forked tongue very much like a serpent's, used to sample the air for a sense of smell.  Nose pits predominantly used as heat sensors.  Able to spit a highly toxic and acidic poison up to twenty feet with astounding accuracy.
Very bad feelings between the Elves and the Latharash, as the Elves had to battle them for dominance of Refuge on first arrival.  Broke up the ancient Latharash Kingdoms, the ruins of which are still buried in the deepest jungles on the planet, crawling with the revenged motivated spirits and undead of the race.

Slitherers:   Thought by many to be a divergence of the Snakemen after the great war with the Dragonoids, the Slitherers have become a slimy race of subterranean dwellers who despise the light of day and all who dwell within.  Long (8 feet) extremely slender and with claws which are made to tunnel, these creatures live in large tribes deep beneath the earth.

Centaurans:   Two different species that only share the superficial body plan.

DracoCentaurans (Dragon Men):    Not at all of the same species as the Equicentaurs, or even the same Class, Dragon Men belong to the Class Dinosaurian, warm blooded scaly creatures like Dinosaurs, Goblins and Dragons.  Their bodies are much like a small, heavy Sauropod, like an Apatosaurus, though only about four and a half feet tall at the shoulders.  The body is covered by a lovely set of scales from fine to coarse, glimmering in many colors of green.  The body is about six and a half feet long, with a three foot tail extending to the rear. The legs are long and muscular, ending in pads much like an elephant's.  A Goblin like Torso with two arms rises to a Saurian head, just under six feet.  The face holds a pair of intelligent green eyes.
Dragon Men are omnivores, though they prefer to feed on the meat of animals they hunt.  They are a very mellow race, not prone to violence unless it is visited upon them.  Very swift runners, they don't have the endurance of horses.

EquiCentaurans (centaurs):   Centaurs look very much like the conception of a Centaur in Earth Mythology.  Bodies almost exactly like a horse, of Medium Warhorse dimensions.  A Torso much like that of a wiry man rises from the front of the Sentient's body, with muscular arms and hands of a human configuration.  The torso and arms are covered with the same fur as the equine body.  The head is very unlike the conception of a Centaur of Earthly Mythology, and more like a cross between a human an equine head, with horse like ears, human eyes, a high forehead and a longish snout.  The head is covered by the same fur as the body, while the face and nose is covered by a much finer quality fur.  Fur colors ranged through almost all the colors of horses, though Centaurs have no conception of Race.  The fur grays with age much as the hair of other races.  Centaurs tower about seven feet above the ground.
Centaurs are very swift runners, as quick as a natural horse.

Trolls:   Great creatures of evil, distantly descended from Gigantopithicus on Earth and mutated by magic on Refuge.

Greater Trolls (Gilli'groth):  Greater Trolls are the shock troops of Evil forces the planet over.  They are easy to organize and given minimal training are the terror of the infantry.
Greater Trolls stand on average 10 feet tall (3 M), and weigh about 1,000 pounds (454Kg) with broad shoulders and thick limbs ending in club like hands and feet.  They have short muzzles filled with an alarming array of sharp teeth, and a Purplish scaly skin that is tough as rock.
When not at war, Greater Trolls tend to live in villages and towns, raising animals and crops. 
Only enchanted or mithril weapons can do damage to Greater Trolls, though doing damage does not strictly lead to death.  A Troll is able to regenerate damage at an incredible speed, only surpassed by Human Immortals, although decapitated or dismembered Great Trolls take a long time to regenerate the loss, and severed members cannot be rejoined except by magical means.
Cold based attacks can stop the Troll from regenerating until it thaws out, and magical and electrical attacks can stun their nervous systems, also stalling their regeneration.  Only fire or acid is deadly or destroying to them, though, burning away their cellular structure and renduring the Greater Troll dead forever.
Greater Trolls live for over two hundred years unless killed beforehand.  An eaten Troll will actually attack from the inside, unless eaten by another Troll (they are cannibals, by the way).  They use large weapons and heavy armor to augment their natural toughness.  Greater Trolls prefer the meat of Humanoids to any other food, and of humanoids, they favor Elves the most, Dwarves the least.

Lesser Trolls (Gilli'krath):   Lesser Trolls are the horrors of the wastelands and wilderness, laying in wait to attack the weak and the unready, eating those they kill and taking their valuables.  Lesser Trolls stand on average 8 1/2 feet tall, with slender limbs for their size, ending in long fingered hands tipped with razor sharp claws.  They have long muzzles filled with an alarming array of sharp teeth, and a greenish scaly skin that is tough as rock.
Lesser Trolls tend to travel in packs of a dozen males and females, frequenting those areas where it is easy to lie in wait for the perfect ambush. 
Only enchanted or mithril weapons can do damage to Lesser Trolls, though doing damage does not strictly lead to death.  A Troll is able to regenerate damage at an incredible speed, only surpassed by Human Immortals, and dismembered Trolls can actually come back together to form a whole being in less than a half hour.  Cold based attacks can stop the Troll from regenerating until it thaws out, and magical and electrical attacks can stun their nervous systems, also stalling their regeneration.  Only fire or acid is deadly or destroying to them, though, burning away their cellular structure and renduring the lesser Troll dead forever.  Lesser Trolls live for over two hundred years unless killed beforehand.  An eaten Troll will actually attack from the inside, unless eaten by another Troll (they are cannibals, by the way).  They do not use weapons or armor, relying on their natural weapons and toughened skin to be more than a match for most humanoids.  Lesser Trolls prefer the meat of Humanoids to any other food, and of humanoids, they favor Elves the most, Dwarves the least.

Ogres (Gilli'kan):  Of the same Gigantopithicus stock as Trolls, Ogres never diverged quite so far from the hominid line.  Standing about 9 feet tall (2.77 M) and weighing about 400 pounds (182 Kg), they are powerful creature that most Hominids do not want to face.  Ogres live in villages and cave complexes, and while not all are evil, they are at least chaotic.  They prefer meat, especially that of the Hominids, but will eat vegetables and grain if that is all that is available.

Non-Earth Origin Sentients:  There are two species of land sentient that did not arise on Earth.

Mantids:  The only intelligent insectiod species on the planet, though how intelligent is a matter of debate.  Native to Refuge, where they evolved from advanced insects.  Mantids have a smaller thorax in proportion to its size, with four supporting legs. A Human like arm with a hand is attached at the shoulder.  The creatures stands about five feet tall, with a foot of antenae above the head.

Khitanians:  A Catlike Race (But not really completely catlike) from yet another dimension who fled purposefully to Refuge from their dying world (dying sun on world) over thirty thousand years ago.  Come in two varieties (Races), a large (6'3", 220 Lbs) with golden fur and black spots, and a smaller (5'10", 175 Lbs) with orange fur and faintly darker stripes.  The smaller is normally the more civilized of the two Races, and are called the KithKhitana (High Khitanians), versus the MoathKhitana (Low Khitanians).  Both are definitely members of the same species though, and normally do not fight along racial lines.  (There have even been intermarriages of the two Races, with a medium sized children with orange fur and dark spots the normal result).
Underwater Races:  There are four sentient races of undersea dweller on Refuge.  They have very little to do with the surface races, sometimes raiding ships or coastal villages, but most often only warring among themselves.

Karnakians:  Looking much like the classical image of the merman/mermaid, with certain noticeable exceptions.  Their skin is covered with small scales, mammaries and nipples are not evident in this nonmammilian species, teeth are sharper and more pointed and set in a shark like jaw, eyes are large and seal like, while external ears are missing.  Hands are five equally long fingers set in a circle around a wrist pad.  The lips of the males are topped by a scale like protrusion than looks much like a handlebar mustache. Tails are very merman like, with larger multicolored scales.  Two "Races" are known, those with light blue skins and those with dark blue skins, though no cultural separation is known based on these differences.  The sentient grows to a little over six feet in length.
Karnakians live for two hundred years, not changing in any physical manner after achieving adulthood.

Pershideans:  Also know as the Shark Men, these are the most "fishlike" of the Underwater Sentients.  With long, teeth filled snouts, large eyes, and sharklike bodies, they look much like small sharks except for the long (four foot) quadruple tentacles that protrude from the front of their bodies.  Sharkmen continue to grow throughout their long (potentially) lives, and can reach lengths of thirty feet in their four hundred year lifespans.

Tritonians:   Looking very much like the "Creature From the Black Lagoon", this is the most Intelligent and Warlike of the Underwater Races.  Cold Blooded like all the sea dwellers, thus able to survive on less oxygen and food than the warm blooded land dwelling sentients.  Able to survive on land for short periods of time, also unlike the other underwater sentients, up to an hour, though this also depends on the humidity of the air and the temperature/exposure to the sun.  Tritonians come in three colors or Races, black, dark green and light green.  They normally live in villages, duchies or kingdoms separated along these racial lines.  The normal life span of a Tritonian is three hundred years.

Hannumans:  The smallest of the Underwater Races, and actually an air breathing mammal, also known as the Sea Ape.  Able to hold its breath for almost an hour and constructing underwater dwelling and caves with an air supply.  These fur covered (much like seals) sentients have a fleshy crest on the top of their heads and two fleshy earflaps on the side, and apelike snout, and webbed hands and feet.  They grow to a maximum, not including the crest, of five feet tall.